Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Income taxes

v3.19.1
Income taxes
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income taxes
Note 14.  Income taxes:
 
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), which makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code. Certain of these changes may be applicable to the Company, including but not limited to, reducing the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 34 percent to 21 percent, creating a new limitation on deductible interest expense, eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax (“AMT”), modifying the rules related to uses and limitations of net operating loss carryforwards generated in tax years ending after December 31, 2017, and changing the rules pertaining to the taxation of profits earned abroad. Changes in tax rates and tax laws are accounted for in the period of enactment. The Tax Act reduces the corporate tax rate to 21 percent, effective January 1, 2018. Consequently, we have recorded a decrease of approximately $14.0 million, related to deferred tax assets, exclusive of the corresponding change in the valuation allowance, for the year ended December 31, 2017. Due to the full valuation allowance on the deferred tax assets, there is no net adjustment to deferred tax expense or benefit due to the reduction of the corporate tax rate. A transition tax is based on total post-1986 earnings and profits which were previously deferred from U.S. income taxes. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not have any undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries. As a result, no additional income or withholding taxes have been provided for. The Company does not anticipate any impacts of the global intangible low taxed income (“GILTI”) and base erosion anti-abuse tax (“BEAT”) and as such, the Company has not recorded any impact associated with either GILTI or BEAT.

The components of the loss from continuing operations before income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 are as follows:

   
For the years ended December 31,
 
   
2018
   
2017
 
Domestic
 
$
(56,452,693
)
 
$
(17,682,428
)
Foreign
   
(4,554,967
)
   
(354,540
)
Loss from Continuing Operations before Income Taxes
 
$
(61,007,660
)
 
$
(18,036,968
)
 
The components of income tax expense (benefit) are as follows:
 
 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
 
2018
   
2017
 
Current:
           
US Federal
 
$
-
   
$
-
 
US State
   
-
     
-
 
Foreign
   
-
      -  
Total current benefit
   
-
     
-
 
Deferred:
               
US Federal
   
495,221
     
1,312,704
 
US State
   
111,779
     
296,296
 
Foreign
   
92,000
     
-
 
Total deferred benefit
   
699,000
     
1,609,000
 
Total benefit for income taxes
 
$
699,000
   
$
1,609,000
 
 
The tax effects of temporary differences and tax loss and credit carry forwards that give rise to significant portions of deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2018 and 2017 are comprised of the following:
 
 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
 
2018
   
2017
 
Deferred income tax assets:
           
Net operating loss carryforwards
 
$
30,745,000
   
$
25,837,000
 
Research and development credit carryforwards
   
989,000
     
989,000
 
Stock option expense
   
1,384,000
     
252,000
 
Impairment of mining related assets and other
   
8,779,000
     
14,000
 
Total deferred tax assets
   
41,897,000
     
27,092,000
 
Valuation allowance
   
(41,897,000
)
   
(27,092,000
)
Net deferred tax assets
   
-
     
-
 
Deferred income tax liabilities:
               
Indefinite life intangible assets
   
(142,709
)
   
(699,000
)
Net deferred tax liabilities
 
$
(142,709
)
 
$
(699,000
)

The Company has approximately $117.4 million of federal and state tax Net Operating Losses (“NOL”s) that may be available to offset future taxable income, if any. The federal net operating loss carryforwards of $100.3 million, if not utilized, will expire in 2037. The federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of $19.1 million generated in 2018 are subject to an 80% limitation on taxable income, do not expire and will carry forward indefinitely. The foreign NOLs available are $2.0 million and begin to expire in 2037.
 
Furthermore, as a result of changes in the ownership of our common stock and changes in our business operations, our ability to use our federal NOLs may be limited under Internal Revenue Code Section 382 and 383.  State NOLs are subject to similar limitations in many cases.  As a result, our substantial NOLs may not have any value to us.

The federal and state tax returns beginning with the year ended December 31, 2006 are currently open for examination under the applicable federal and state income tax statues of limitations. The foreign tax returns for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018 are open for examination.

In assessing the realization of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the period in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities, projected future taxable income and taxing strategies in making this assessment. In case the deferred tax assets will not be realized in future periods, the Company has provided a valuation allowance for the full amount of the deferred tax assets at December 31, 2018. The valuation allowance increased by approximately $14.8 million as of December 31, 2018.
 
The expected tax expense (benefit) based on the U.S. federal statutory rate is reconciled with actual tax expense (benefit) as follows:
 
 
 
For the years ended December 31,
 
 
 
2018
   
2017
 
Statutory federal income tax expense (benefit)
 
$
(12,791,000
)
 
$
(7,307,000
)
State taxes, net of federal tax expense (benefit)
   
(2,887,000
)
   
(647,000
)
Federal tax rate change
   
-
     
13,617,000
 
Stock compensation and other non-deductible expenses
   
174,000
     
3,118,000
 
Change in valuation allowance
   
14,805,000
     
(10,390,000
)
Income taxes benefit
 
$
(699,000
)
 
$
(1,609,000
)
 
The Company has not identified any uncertain tax positions requiring a reserve as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties that would be assessed in relation to the settlement value of unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. The Company did not accrue either interest or penalties for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.

The Company’s major tax jurisdictions are the United States, Oklahoma and Canada. The Company has not been under tax examination in any jurisdiction for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.